Easy Lojban Lessons | Lesson 1 Part 2

New Words:

Grammar words:
xu - makes the sentence a question
go'i - "what you said is correct"; i.e. yes
jungo - Chinese (adjective)
merko - American (adjective; as in USA)
gugde - country
ue - surprise


jan.: coi maris.
maris.: coi jan
jan.: mi jungo .i xu do merko
maris.: go'i
jan.: .ue .i do xabju ma
maris.: .i mi xabju la merko gugde .i do xabju ma
jan. .i mi xabju la jungo gugde .i co'o maris.
maris.: co'o jan.

Reading Comprehension:

True or False
1. (  ) Zhang had a hard time remembering Mary's name.
2. (  ) Both Zhang and Mary are Americans.
3. (  ) Mary's father is Korean.
4. (  ) This conversation probably took place over the internet.
5. (  ) Zhang lives in China.

New Material:

1. As we saw from this dialogue and the last one, the vocative "coi" is followed by the name or term you're using for your addressee. "coi do" means hey you. "coi maris." means hey Mary. Later we'll see how you can use gismu to make phrases like "Hey you old dog," etc.

2. In Lojban most major nationalities have official words. The others usually do not and to specify these groups there are a few different methods. For now we'll stick to the established ones, so if you're Italian or one of the other "unoffical" nationalities you'll have to wait. In the mean time here is a table of some of the more common ones.


Exercises: Write the nationalities associated with each major city.
(1). Berlin _____________ (2). Beijing _____________ (3). Madrid _____________ (4). Paris _______________ (5). Moscow ____________

The words themselves mean that (blank) is American, or Chinese, or Russian. They do not refer to any particular place or language. For those we will take these words and attach them to the words for country and language, respectively. Therefore when we'll be saying America and China, we'll literally be saying "American Country" and "Chinese Country," which are merko gugde and jungo gugde, like in the dialogue.

3. xu is a particle used to turn a statement into a question. When placed at the beginning of the sentence, the whole sentence becomes a question. When placed after a word, that word becomes the focus of the question.

xu do jungo = Are you Chinese?
do xu jungo = Are you Chinese?
do jungo xu = Are you Chinese?

4. go'i is the Lojban equivalent for yes. It literally means "that thing you just said is true."

5. la is an article which Lojban uses to say that something is a name, and not a concrete object. The question of what is America or China is a debatable: is Taiwan really part of the PRC? Can Puerto Rico be defined as American soil? It is this issue of philosophy that influences the Lojban speaker to refer to these countries as names instead of definite nouns. Thus the name of a country should be prefaced by la, to show that its just a term and not set in stone.


Translate into Lojban:

(1). I live in Spain.

(2). My name is Daniel.

(3). Your father is German.

(4). Are you Japanese? Yes.

(5). You live in France.

Determine whether the following would be preceded by la or not.

1. Mary

2. China

3. dog

4. water buffalo

5. Henry

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